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Categories: Video - Categories

pbs cwA wide variety of videos are available. They can generally be classified into informational (documentary), instructional, educational, and entertainment. In addition, other specialized video types are also available.

From travel videos to historical accounts, informational and documentary videos help people gain insights and understandings into a particular topic.

Some videos bridge categories. For example, Ken Burn's Civil War series is informational, educational, and entertaining. It was originally available on broadcast television, but now it can be purchased in both DVD and digitally.

In addition, a website that accompanies the video series contains many additional resources to expand the experience including discussions and classroom activities. You can also purchase the book, audio CD, or digital audio to round out the experience.

Informational & Documentary Video

inside aliveInformational videos including documentaries are works based on factual accounts, facts, or personal experience.

For instance, Inside Alive tells the story of social worker Dan Cohen who "starts a campaign to provide nursing home patients access to music that reawakens their joy in life." Watch the trailer.

Documentaries may include dramatizations to recreate events based on first-hand records. Many cable television programs ride a fine line between fact and fiction.

Have you ever wanted to dive deep into the ocean, visit the Grand Canyon, or explore ancient civilizations? Nonfiction video titles can be found in every content area. For example, the BBC series The Blue Planet takes viewers to the depths of the ocean. Check out Discovery video at their YouTube channel.

Lovers of A&E, the History ChannelBBCPBSHBO, Showtime, and other television channels are very familiar with this style. Many vacationers have seen documentaries such as Beautiful Planet and Voyage of Time at an IMAX theatre.

Many documentaries are never seen in the theatre or television. Even when they are released on video, they are often overlooked by consumers. However, they can be popular items in the library.

try itTry It!
Explore Documentary Addict for lots of examples.
Which have you seen? Which would you like to see? Which are available on Netflix?
Which are available through your local library?

Award Winners. Each year an Academy Award is given for the best documentary. The 2015 winner was Amy, a documentary about Amy Winehouse. Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport was the Academy Award winning documentary about a pre-World War II effort to rescue Jewish children from Nazi territory and place them with families in England. 

Many of the award winning films, also have website materials to explore. For instance, Academy Award Nominee Food, Inc. has extensive web-based materials.

The RBG website provides resources and additional information beyond the film and ideas for accessing the documentary. Explore a few other examples:

Popular Titles. If you're just starting to expand your documentary collection, consider award winners and popular films. Some documentaries quickly gain popularity in the library. For example, Hoop Dreams is a popular documentary about basketball. The works of Michael Moore such as a Roger & MeThe Awful Truth, and Where to Invade Next are also popular. Citizenfour tells the story of Edward Snowden.

Entertainment. VH1 and MTV programs have made music documentaries popular. A Hard Day's Night, The Rolling Stones - Gimme Shelter, and Bob Dylan - Don't Look Back are examples. Concerts documentaries such as Woodstock can also be found. The Original Kings of Comedy focuses on comedians.

Be aware that the realistic nature of documentary film-making often involves raw language and graphic, sexual or violent situations. Most documentaries are not rated, but some come with warnings. For example, Scratch pays tribute to hip-hop DJs. This movie has an R rating.

History. Public television including CBC, PBS, and BBC provides many documentary programs. Those by Ken Burns are probably best known. These include Lewis and Clark, Civil War, Jackie Robinson, The Roosevelts, and Liberty. Many of the programs have matching websites such as Mark Twain.

Others are starting to use a similar style such as Spike Lee's 4 Little Girls focuses on the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham.

Documentaries can be found on every aspect of history such as Coca-Cola, The History of An American IconA&E's The Impressionists does a great job capturing the time period as well as the art and artists.

National Geographic lovers will enjoy National Geographic's The Photographers and 30 Years of National Geographic Specials.

A&E and the History Channel are well-known for quality projects such as World War II - The Lost Color Archives, Founding Fathers, and Mummies.

Science. From Carl Sagan's Cosmos to The Life of Birds, science has always been a popular topic for documentaries. BBCPBSNational Geographic, and Discovery Channel are well-known for their science and nature documentaries. For example, BBC's Walking with Dinosaurs series was a popular success. Space has always been a popular topic such as Stephen Hawking's Universe from PBS or Stargaze - Hubble's View of the Universe. Weather such as Weather Extreme from the Discovery Channel is another hot topic.

The Cove
 is an inspiring, award-winning story about a dolphin.

Health. Prospective parents might want to consider a video series like Pregnancy for Dummies. This video is one of many in the "Dummies" series.

Biography. People are often the focus of documentaries. For example, Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth is a six hour interview with the teacher-mythologist. Chuck Jones - Extremes and In-Betweens, a Life in Animation is about the famous cartoonist. PBS's American Masters and Biography Channel's Biographies are both great choices. Try Wonder Women! The Untold Story of American Superheroines.

Hobbies and Travel. Informational videos on pet care, biking, and travel can all be found in this area. Whether you'd like to explore your background or travel around the world, there are videos that can provide the background information you need. For example, the Emmy award winning Gardens of the World with Audrey Hepburn takes you on virtual visits to different types of gardens from England to Holland.

Sports. Sports enthusiasts can find endless selections of informational and documentary films. From Ken Burn's Baseball to World Wresting Federation videos, the possibilities are endless. Michael Jordan to the Max is an IMAX production and Olympic movies abound. All fans of the 1980 US Hockey Team video will want to see Do You Believe in Miracles. Sports bloopers are also popular.

In the same area, look for transportation videos. Kids and adults alike enjoy videos featuring monster trucks, cars, trains, and motorcycles.

Religious. Many religious organizations produce materials. In addition, you'll find information videos and documentaries such as Christianity - The First Two Thousand Years or Islam - Empire of Faith.

Others. Not all documentaries can be easily categorized. For example, Baraka, Koyaanisqatsi and Powaqqatsi explore the world through a barrage of images and sound.

Some documentaries bridge categories. Is Crocodile Hunter's Croc Files a documentary or entertainment piece? You'll also find lots of documentaries on topics such as vampires, aliens, and Area 51. Some are docudramas and some are just for fun.

smallAnnette's Reflection
Won't You Be My Neighbor? is a documentary about the life and guiding philosophy of Fred Rogers. It's an example of the growing number of "mainstream" documentaries designed to appeal to a broad audience. Combining historical footage and interviews, the film tells the story of this iconic children's television host. The film has received numerous awards.

Snag Films is an example that focuses on documentaries and videos.

Instructional Video

flycastingHave you ever wanted to build a birdhouse, plant a garden, or learn to play the piano? Instructional videos are developed to teach specific skills and concepts. They're generally shorter in length than entertainment programming and have a very narrow focus. For example, an instructional video may contain a number of short, ten to twenty minute segments.

Whether you want to use Microsoft Office, operate wood working equipment, or become a kick boxing expert, you're likely to find an instructional video to help. People enjoy learning outside the traditional classroom setting. For example, many immigrants learn English as a second language through video programs.

Couples may feel more comfortable learning to ballroom dance with a video rather than in front of strangers in a formal class. Couples can watch the Wedding Dance and learn the basics they'll need for their big day. Many videos are produced by small companies that have companion websites like Now You're Dancing.

Have you ever wanted to learn Chinese cooking or flower arranging? Videos are a great way to start.

smallAnnette's Reflection
Instructional videos are a regular part of our household.
I've used yoga videos and my husband enjoys woodworking videos. We both learned to fly cast using an instructional video.

Think about what you'd like to learn... can you find an instructional video to watch?

Exercise. From Jane Fonda to Richard Simmons, exercise videos started the "how to" video craze back in the 1980s. Although kickboxing, pilates, tai chi, hula, belly dancing, and yoga are the current rage, another set of exercise gurus are just around the corner. For example, Denise Austin's videos and DVDs include pilates, yoga, aerobics, and country dancing.

Instructional videos have many advantages over face-to-face classes or other learning methods such as books or audios. You see and hear the instructions as you perform the task. Your personal instructor takes you step-by-step through each skill. Learners set their own pace and can repeat the video over and over as needed. For these reasons, people like golf videos where they can practice before heading to the golf course.

Music. Learn to play the drums, guitar, piano, or other instruments using step-by-step instructions on video. These videos often come with companion materials such as books and posters.

Self-Help. Wayne Dyer and Andrew Weil are just a couple of the popular self-help gurus who have produced videos. Meditation, healing, and massage videos are all great for relaxation. How about a video on aromatherapy?

Crafts and Hobbies. Do you want to design your living space using the Feng Shui philosophy? Maybe you want to learn to draw comic strips or paint watercolor. Have you ever considered learning to sail a boat, deep sea dive, or mountain climb? Some people just like to watch these videos for entertainment rather than taking them seriously. For example, the Dorf series highlights silly approaches to sports. On the other hand, serious fishermen, hunters, and skiers often use videos to brush up on skills. There are many great videos to get you started.

Cooking. Many video productions provide step-by-step instructions for baking and cooking. Topics include chocolate, healthful living, and cooking with children. You can even learn to make beer and wine. Although Cooking with Porn Stars might not be your thing, you can probably find a cooking video that's right for you.

Video in the Classroom
Some videos are designed specifically for classrooms and teachers. These materials often contain teacher's guides, lesson plans, discussion questions, and other using materials to help integrate the program into the classroom.

Instructional television (ITV) is a subset of educational television. It is programming that has been specifically designed and developed for use in schools. Programs are produced for a certain curricula area or areas, aimed at a specific level of student, and developed to meet specific classroom needs. They have definite instructional objectives. In addition, instructional television is likely to be accompanied by teacher guides, student materials, and other printed resources.

Many local public broadcasting affiliates (PBS stations) broadcast instructional television programming during the weekday school hours. They often set up a regional ITV consortium and employ a school liaison staff-member. These groups promote and facilitate the license and purchase of ITV programming and materials for member schools.

Explore some examples:

Educational Video

freedom summerEducational video focuses on factual information with teaching and learning as its goal.

From Sesame Street to Creative Writing courses, educational programming is intended to provide learning experiences. Rather than focusing on a specific skill like instructional video, educational programming is flexible enough to be used in many situations.

Freedom Summer tells the story of "organizers and student civil rights workers register voters in 1964 Mississippi and confront racism and resistance." The PBS website provides learning materials to accompany the program.

Although often used almost interchangeably, the terms educational (ETV) and instructional television (ITV) refer to different types of video programming. Educational video is any video programming that contributes to the teaching/learning environment.

Many teachers and instructors use video as a regular part of their teaching. From traditional classrooms to health and business professional seminars, effective video productions can be found in every content area. In the past, separate production companies produced educational and popular films. Today many quality educational films are being produced by mainstream video developers.

Weston Woods inconjunction with Scholastic has become known for outstanding videos based on books.

PBS (Public Broadcasting Systems) is probably the best known provider of educational video in the classroom; however; many cable stations are increasingly involved with programs for all ages.

For example, many college faculty and mental health professionals find Discovery Channel programs and series such as The Brain: Our Universe Within to be a valuable classroom resource.

Quality video materials can be found across subject areas. Increasingly publishers are mixing video materials with books and online materials. Explore the Getting to Know website for examples related to the award-winning Edgar Degas video and materials.

Read Riismandel, Paul (July 2015). The Education Video Boom. Streaming Media Magazine, 8. Available through IUPUI.

Health. Surviving AIDS, living with Alzheimer's disease, and facing breast cancer with humor are a few examples of educational videos related to health. These videos are intended to help people with specific diseases or assist people working with others. Topics such as eating disorders, ADD, and dealing with diabetes are common in high schools. Pregnancy and childbirth videos are also popular. For example, parents may want to explore the Lamaze class videos. Of course, you can also find videos on topics such asCPR and first aid.

Each year, the American Library Association (ALA) produces a list of notable films for children and young adults. This is a good place to start. For example, Dying to be Thin is a PBS NOVA program produced by WGBH Boston.

The award-winning Anatomy of Puff uses scientific facts to show the hazards of smoking. Many publishers now provide an online preview and interactive whiteboard activities.

Social Studies. The ALA notable video Ancient Greece by Discovery Channel School is an example of the many history videos. In the area of geography,

Some educational DVDs are sponsored by non-profit organizations.

Science. From Egypt Eternal: The Quest for Lost Tombs to Celebration of FlightNational Geographic has long been associated with quality science video for a long time. In addition to feature films, they produce television series and work together with PBS on specials. TheNational Geographic website has a long list of options including Video and DVD programs.

Educators are encouraged to look for materials that align with the National Science EducationStandards.

English. Many books for children and young adults have been made into educational films.

Classroom videos are produced by a number of well-known producers. For example, Weston Woods works closely with ScholasticAntarctic Antics is a book of penguin poems produced by Weston Woods andScholastic. It's the winner of a number of awards including the Carnegie Medal

Spoken Arts Media also produces literature based videos. Their programs are based on stories suchas a The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polacco and The Three Questions by Jon Muth, based on a story by Leo Tolstoy.

ReligiousVeggieTales are popular in Christian church schools.

General Public. Some videos are made for the general public, while others are designed specifically for classrooms. Schoolhouse Rock has been popular with the general public since the 1970s. These short videos have taught children everything from English to mathematics through catchy songs. The Schoolhouse Rock! Special 30th Anniversary Edition DVD is popular with all ages.

Popular educational videos can be found in many content areas such as math, science, and social studies. For example, the Standard Deviants collection from Cerebellum Corporation explores topics in physics, astronomy, math, Spanish, English and covers many school and college curricular areas. In the Standard Deviants series, a talented troupe of young performers make the topics interesting.

Educational Television. From Sesame Street to Blues Clues, many popular educational television programs are available on VHS and DVD.

Many of these materials are available on DVD, but also provide resources at their website. For instance, The Pluto Files is a DVD with online resources from PBS.

Government Resources. Many government agencies have free and inexpensive videos.

Explore some examples:

Entertainment Video

Entertainment videos are probably the most popular. Including both box-office hits and art-house films, entertainment videos come in a wide range of genres.

From comedy to drama, thousands of new entertainment videos are produced each year. When choosing videos, it’s sometimes helpful to learn more about the genre. In 1998, the American Film Institute (AFI) came up with AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies, their listing of the best films of the last century. They also developed lists for particular genres such as comedies and thrillers. You may or may not agree with their selections, but these lists are helpful as you explore the options.

AFI identified Citizen Kane, Casablanca, The Godfather, Gone with the Wind, Lawrence of Arabia, The Wizard of Oz, The Graduate, On the Waterfront, Schindler's List, and Singin' in the Rain as their top 10.

Let's explore some of the categories you'll want to consider as you select videos.

Action & Adventure. Whether you're a fan of disasters, mystery, martial arts, superheroes, or thrillers, you can find many popular films in this category. Although several new films are released every week, some classics like The Great Escape, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and Rambo remain popular. Buddy movies like Thelma and Louise, Up in Smoke, Lethal Weapon, and Charlie's Angels are a fun combination. Some movies such as X-Men and The Avengers are based on popular comic books.

Spies, cops, and heroes are all an important part of action films. Some focus more on action, while others emphasize plot. Some movies likeFrench Connection, The Usual Suspects, LA Confidential, and Top Gun stand up well over time. Others such as The FugitiveThe Day of the Jackal, and The Bourne Identity are remade and updated. Some patrons may want to watch the original and remake side by side. Check out AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains list.

Series such as Dirty HarryLethal WeaponDie Hard, and the Mummy show cover a range of action. James Bond films have been popular since the 1960s. Tom Clancy's Jack Ryan was so popular, that producers have brought him back with a younger leading man. From Arnold Schwarzenegger to Vin Diesel, each generation finds their own action heroes.

Fires (Backdraft & Towering Inferno), earthquakes (Earthquake, San Andreas), tornadoes (Twister), volcanoes (Dante's Peak, Volcano), shark attacks (Jaws, Sharknado), boat wrecks (The Poseidon Adventure), threats of pestilence (Outbreak), and plane crash (Airport) disaster movies remain popular.

Action and adventure is often combined with other areas. For example, historical romances such as The English Patient, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, and Titanic also have action elements. Comic adventures are always popular from Kelly's Heroes and Smokey and the Bandit toRomancing the Stone and Rush Hour.

Thrillers and horrors can make you jump. I'll never forget seeing Jack Nicholson in The Shining.Popular series include Friday the 13th, Halloween, and Nightmare on Elm Street. Psycho, Jaws, The Exorcist, North by Northwest, Rear Window, and Silence of the Lambs are on the AFI's list of AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills. Recent thrillers include Hannibal and The Others.

Animated. Pixar is one of a number of studios known for their animation work on films such as Finding Nemo. Many of the recent animated films that can be enjoyed by children and adults alike.Toy Story series, Monsters Inc, Cars series, Ice Age series, Kung Fu Panda series, Shrek series, Ice Age series, and Lilo and Stitch are others.

Although Disney classics such as The Lion King and newer films like Frozen will always be popular, other companies such as Dreamworks and Pixar are gaining appeal. When purchasing for the library, keep in mind that many Disney films are only released for a short time.

As you select animated works, be careful. Some of the comic-type videos are intended for adults. For example, some anime and manga have violent and sexual situations.

Many animated films have websiste connections that can be used to promote the video. For instance, How to Train Your Dragon contains online activities and games.

Children's. Harry Potter is a great book series and the film versions entertain people of all ages. Look for other children's books that became movies such as Tuck Everlasting.

Some videos are geared specifically for young audiences. For example, Mary-Kate and Ashley are only two of the many popular teenage stars producing direct to video productions.

The 1960s and 70s gave viewers lots of children's classics including Mary Poppins, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, Annie, and others.

Many series are popular with kids including Back to the Future and the Muppet movies. Spy Kids is a new adventure series for kids.

Animal films such as Babe, The Black Stallion, Homeward Bound - The Incredible Journey, and The Bear are also popular with all ages.

Many television programs are available in video format such as Spongebob Squarepants, Barney, Dragon's Tales, Franklin, Bob the Builder, Rugrats, Clifford, and Blue's Clues.

Christian. Some movies don't fit nicely into categories. For example, the Left Behind videos are specifically geared to Christians and often dubbed "Christian Entertainment". The VeggieTale videos and movies are children's movies with a Christian theme.

Some mainstream movies have Christian themes such as Jesus of Nazareth, The Ten Commandments, and Disney's The Prince of Egypt.

Comedy. From romantic comedies to slap-stick, there are many different types of comedies. Nora Ephron has become known as the queen of the romantic comedy with hits like You've Got Mail, Sleepless in Seattle, and When Harry Met Sally...

Classics of comedy include Some Like It Hot, Tootsie, Dr. Strangelove, Annie Hall, and Duck Soup. Peter Sellers was hot in the 1960s with the Pink Panther movies. The popularity of comedies continued in the 1970s and 80s with Blazing Saddles, A Fish Called Wanda, Animal House, Beetlejuice, Caddyshack, MASH, Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Ghostbusers, The Jerk, and Young Frankenstein. The Coen brothers came along in the late 80s with hits likeRaising Arizona, Fargo (Darkcomedy), and O Brother, Where Art Thou? Recently, There's Something About MaryShakespeare in Love, As Good as it GetsMeet the Parents and Austin Powers were popular.

The GraduateTootsie, American Graffiti, Forrest Gump, Good Morning, Vietnam bridge the drama-comedy fence.

Cult. Cult films have a large following of devoted viewers. Cult classics run the gambit of categories. Rocky Horror Picture Show, Pink Floyd - The Wall, Blade Runner, A Clockwork Orange, Easy Rider, Repo Man, This is Spinal Tap, and all the Monty Python movies are examples.

DramaA Beautiful Mind, Good Will Hunting, In the Bedroom, Erin BrockovichAmerican Beauty, and Monster's Ball are recent dramas.

Chinatown, One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest, Scarface, Goodfellas, To Kill a MockingbirdRocky, and The Grapes of Wrath are a few classic dramas to consider.

Some people like dramas in a particular category. For example, sports fans enjoy The Rookie, Field of Dreams, Remember the Titans, Chariots of Fire, Hoosiers, and Rudy.

Romantic classics include An Affair to Remember, Gone with the Wind, The Way We Were, Doctor Zhivago, Love Story, andCasablanca. Check out the AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions list.

Gladiator, Apollo 13, Braveheart, Dances with Wolves, Last of the Mohicans, Pride and Prejudice, The Patriot, Pearl Harbor, Titantic,Platoon, and Saving Private Ryan are just a few of the popular historical dramas. Lawrence of Arabia, Bridge on the River Kwai, Ben Hur,Apocalypse Now, Patton, Godfather is a classic favorite. Recent history includes Black Hawk Down.

Although few new movies are being made, westerns are still popular in libraries. "Spaghetti" Westerns like They Call Me Trinity and The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly are timeless. John Wayne and Clint Eastwood collections arealways a hit. Classic Western movies include Shane, Stagecoach, Magnificent SevenSilverado, Quigley Down Under, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, High Noon, Lonesome Dove, and Cat Ballou. Recent westerns include The Quick and the Dead, Geronimo, Tombstone, and Unforgiven.

Foreign. Like documentaries, foreign films such as Like Water for Chocolate and Life Is Beautiful are often not available in local video stores. Oneadvantage to DVD is the multiple audio and captioning options.

A good selection of films from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia can provide breadth to your video collection. For example, consider some Asian classics such as Seven SamuraiRan, and Farewell My Concubine.

Think about developing a collection of award-winning international films that might not be found at the local video store. Amelie is an award-winning French film and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon is from Hong Kong.

Music and Musicals.The musical is back! Moulin Rouge became a cult hit in less than a year. Chicago followed last year to become a giant hit!. Add to these new hits some classics such as the Rodgers and Hammerstein collection.Sound of Music, West Side Story, Oliver, and Oklahoma are examples from the 1950s and 60s. Fiddler on the Roof, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell, and The Wiz are from the 1970s.

Andrew Lloyd Webber and Gilbert & Sullivan works should also be considered. You can find performance videos on topics including ballet, broadway, opera, and others.

In addition to musicals, you can also find concerts, movie videos, and biographies. Queens, Eagles, and U2 videos are a few examples.

Some movies with music bridge several categories. For example, where do you put The Blue BrothersFootloose, Saturday Night Fever, and Flashdance?

Science Fiction. The Matrix and the Lord of the Rings series have made science fiction and fantasy mainstream. From Star Wars and Star Trek to Jurassic Park, series like Men in Black and Alien are always popular in science fiction.

It's important to have a mixture of classics with newer films. For example, The War of the Worlds, Forbidden Planet, Logan's Run, Conan the Barbarian, Planet of the Apes, ET, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Escape from New YorkThe Stand, Blade Runner, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Dune, Mad Max, Total Recall, and Terminator.

Many science fiction movies such as Minority Report focus on issues that span time and place.

Seasonal. What would Christmas be like without It's a Wonderful World and The Christmas Story? Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, Frosty the Snowman, How the Grinch Stole Christmas, and the Little Drummer Boy are a few examples of holiday classics. Modern classics include National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation and The Santa Clause.

Valentine's Day is another time for videos such as Be My Valentine, Charlie Brown, or Clifford Be My Big Red Valentine.

The Peanuts holiday collection includes Christmas, Thanksgiving, and Halloween.

Collections. Beside the genres, some people like to explore the actors, directors, or other people involved with video productions. For example, you might have a collection of Alfred Hitchcock or Steven Spielberg movies. Someone might organize a John Wayne, Tom Hanks, Robert De Niro, Meg Ryan, or Harrison Ford week. Check out AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars for classic ideas.

Schools. School library media specialists need to analyze the curriculum and look for popular movies that could be used as an integral part of teaching. Historical drama is a logical connection, but other films might provide a context for learning about other topics. For example, One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest can be used in psychology classes and Grapes of Wrath in English and Social Studies.

People are drawn to video communications. Whether it's a football game on television, a streaming news webcast, or a video recording of the moon landing, video can provide motion pictures, animation, text and spoken words, music, sound effects, and other visual and auditory elements.

The term "digital video" refers to a combination of sounds and/or images that are represented in the form of numbers that can be read by an electronic device. Digital video can be shared through media such as CDs and DVDs, but it can also be shared over networks such as the Internet. Many formats are used to store the files and view files.

Other Categories of Videos

In addition to the major categories, there are other types of videos to consider.

Increasingly, scholars are sharing their research in non-traditional ways through the use of audio and video. According to Dempsey and others (2014), the dissemintation of scholarly works "still consist primarily of published text, additional materials such as video, interactive programs, and complex visualizations increasingly supplement these outcomes."

Personal Essay

The personal essay category differs from documentary in that it offers the perspective of an individual placing emphasis on the individual's unique vision. It may or may not be based in fact. Although it's purpose may be educational or entertainment, it may also simply be a personal statement.

Performance and Video Art

Performance and video art include recordings of theater, dance, music, or other types of performance art. In most cases, these videos are intended for entertainment. However, they may also be used as part of instructional or educational programming.

Field and Clinical Video

A field video sharing a First Nations ritual, a clinical video demonstrating nursing practices, or a surgical video featuring a new procedure. These videos are closely connected with instruction and education, but also reflect the documentary category.

try itTry It!
Go to Ethnographic Video for Instruction & Analysis.

Video Abstracts

A video abstract is “a video presentation corresponding to a specific science research article, which typically communicates the background of a study, methods used, study results and potential implications through the use of images, audio, video clips, and text.” Four examples from the presentation An Exploration into the World of Multimodal Scholarship in the Digital Arts Sciences + Humanities are show below:

Watch the video abstract for Spicer, Scott (2014). Exploring Video Abstracts in Science Journals: An Overview and Case Study. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 2(2).

Read the article Spicer, Scott (2014). Exploring Video Abstracts in Science Journals: An Overview and Case Study. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 2(2). Available through IUPUI.

Notice how a video abstract is used in this article.

Digital Dissertations

Dissertations are traditionally thought of as documents containing text and graphics. When audio, video, and other media types are incorporated into a dissertation, they're known as digital dissertations. These dissertations present unique challenges for publishers and libraries.

Read Scholl, Justin (November 17, 2013). We Rock Long Distance: Creating a Digital Dissertation for a Digital Diaspora. Ethnomusicology Review. Also, explore We Rock Long Distance, a digital dissertation.


Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; & Lavoie, Brian (July 2014). Collection Directions: The Evoluttion of Library Collections and Collecting. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 14(3), 400.

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